[SOLVED] Criminal Justice Organizations

Research, select, and read several scholarly articles or papers on the International Criminal Court and the United States’ objections to becoming an equal member of the court, including the Obama administration’s renewed overtures in the direction of U.S. participation. The United States government has intermittently opposed an International Criminal Court that could assert jurisdiction over and prosecute, US military and political leaders according to an established global standard of justice. The Clinton administration showed great interest in American participation and entered into negotiations toward the International Criminal Court treaty. Still, the Clinton administration position would have seen America retaining substantial independent power along the lines of its permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council. If taken, this would have enabled the United States to veto any cases it opposed. When other nations refused to agree to such an unequal justice system, the United States lobbied to weaken and undermine the court. George W. Bush came into office just as the court was nearing activation for all member nations and strongly opposed both the court and US participation. As a substitute, the Bush administration attempted to enter into bilateral treaties with other countries, ensuring immunity of US nationals from prosecution by the court. To those nations that expressed reticence, America threatened to terminate economic aid and withdraw military assistance, among other steps. The Obama administration reflected a return to the Clinton policy approach and made significant efforts to explore US participation. Although it has been participating with the court’s governing bodies and providing support for prosecutions for some years, the United States has continued to resist full membership in the International Criminal Court because of concern about possible charges against US nationals. The recent Italian court conviction of 23 US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) intelligence officers stands as an example of what the United States refuses to be subject to. Using citations to a published authority from your research, present a proposed policy program for criminal justice organization leaders that would allow the United States to reap the benefits of participation in an enhanced global partnering effort to address both terrorism and transnational crime, while simultaneously providing sufficient autonomy to ensure that US citizens do not fall victim to foreign or international politics or misapplications of the judicial process by other nations. In writing about your concept, discuss the impediments to implementing it. Include any relevant political, cultural, and legal factors that could serve as obstacles to your innovative concept. How will accountability of these leaders improve US organization function and processes? Respond to the following questions (at a minimum): How is the concept organized or managed by key players? Why is the concept that is being offered to the United States sound? What makes it effective or could make it effective? What are the political, legal, and organizational cultural implications for the concept? What laws or legal consequences are relevant to this problem? What are the economic implications for the concept, if any? What are the impediments to the development and integration of the concept?

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